With an ever-increasing global population, the demand for fundamental raw resources and finished products is skyrocketing. Untreated waste is being released into our ecosystem at an increasing rate as global industrialisation progresses. Over 700 new pollutants, such as waste contaminants from petrochemicals, personal care, textiles, and insecticides, are estimated to exist. Furthermore, the world's energy demand is largely met by fossil fuels, which emit large volumes of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Water contamination has led to the spread of a variety of infectious diseases and viruses. Human consumption, agricultural irrigation, and industrial use all drive fresh water demand, which is growing in lockstep with the world's population. Improved technologies for cleaning unfit for human consumption water at a low cost and over time are needed, especially in isolated or rural areas. Around 85-90 percent of all chemical reactions are catalytic reactions. Environmental catalysis has been widely used in many commercial and industrial sectors for the protection of the environment and to improve the quality of our lives over the last several decades. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are effective in reducing water pollution, oxidising organic particles, reducing nitrogen oxide emissions from power plants, removing waste and pesticides, and controlling volatile organic compound emissions, among other applications.